Resources for Theme 'Agriculture, fisheries and food security'
admin | 2015-03-30 | 689.6 KB | details
The agricultural sector in Africa is very vulnerable to climate change and there is need for strong support to research on adaptation to climate change. A desk study on the synthesis of research and policy on climate change in the agricultural sector in West Africa was undertaken as part of the activities of a platform for exchange between researchers and policymakers for adaptation to climate change (AfricaInteract), a project funded by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and coordinated by the Council for Agricultural Research and Development in West and Central Africa (CORAF/WECARD). The objective of the review is to enhance the knowledge base and support research-based policy formulation for climate change adaptation in the smallholder agricultural sector (crops, livestock, pastoral systems and fisheries) in West Africa. Peer reviewed journal papers, peer reviewed reports of CGIAR centres and international organisations, papers published in conference proceedings and consultancy reports were studied. Materials published from 1995 to 2013 were used for the report.
Even though recent research indicates that global increases in surface temperature may not be as severe as previously predicted, there is scientific evidence of climate change and impacts on agriculture. Furthermore, farmers in the region are increasingly becoming aware of the negative effects of climate change and variability as well as the associated extreme events on their production systems and livelihoods. The impact of climate change is moderated by factors such as access to land, inputs, credit and markets. General Circulation Models are being used to describe scenarios in the future that could result from climate change. While there is consistency between the models in predicting increases in temperatures of about 2⁰C between 2000 and 2050, predictions for rainfall are less consistent.
Detrimental effects in all sectors, as measured by several parameters, are indicated if adaptation measures are not adopted. Decline in yields of 5-25 percent between 2000 and 2050 for rainfed crops can occur. Crop revenues are projected to drop by 17-32 percent by 2100. For livestock, climate change is likely to have serious impacts in terms of changes in land use; reduced availability of water; changes in productivity of forage, plant species composition and quality; and severity and distribution of animal diseases. Concerning fisheries, the likely impacts – especially in the coastal zone of West Africa where marine fisheries is a major economic activity – are increased floods, death of fish and salinisation of fresh waters. A decline of 21 percent in annual landed value, a 50 percent drop in fisheries related jobs and annual losses of $311 million by 2050 is predicted for West Africa. However, rising sea level also creates opportunities for aquaculture, for which production is under greater human control.
The length of growing period (LGP) for most crops is expected to drop below 90 days in some parts of West Africa. Declining LGP will negatively impact even drought-tolerant crops such as millet as well as water resources, forages and pastures, and therefore the productivity and livelihoods of smallholders in the crops, livestock, pastoral and fisheries sectors of agriculture. Without adaptation, gross domestic product (GDP) in West Africa is projected to decline by two to four percent by 2100.
Several forms of adaptation by smallholders have been documented including adoption of technological practices, on- and off-farm diversification, mobility of pastoralists and use of weather forecasts. Barriers to adaptation include low economic capacity, poor infrastructure and institutions, socio-cultural perspectives, conflicts between interested parties and poor knowledge dissemination pathways. Gender sensitivity is increasingly being incorporated into technology development, implementation and policy. Several gaps or deficiencies in research approach, research output and policy formulation are outlined, such as inadequate decision support tools, limited use of participatory approaches and inadequate knowledge on adaptation strategies, including poorly developed index based insurance and weather forecasting. There is little knowledge on the link between climate change and trade or on adaptation to future climates. There is also poor understanding of policy processes and political factors influencing priorities and affecting adaptation.
At the regional and national levels, agricultural development policy documents indicate that considerations of climate change issues (no matter how brief) are most of the time mentioned in the plans, while the impact of climate change on the agricultural sector and adaptation are given consideration in climate adaptation policy documents. There is little to no mainstreaming of climate change policy into agricultural development policies. Key barriers to the uptake of research for policy formulation are limited or no involvement of policymakers in the research process, delays in reports reaching policymakers, ineffective forms of communicating research results, short term perspectives of politicians and linear research-policy linkage. Barriers to implementation of policy include weak institutions, lack of political will and inadequate funding.
A wide range of stakeholders are operating in the region. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is providing leadership in formulating policy, aligned to the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture
Development Programme (CAADP), at the regional level on adaptation to climate change. CORAF/WECARD,
the African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development (ACMAD) and the Agro-Hydro-Meteorology (AGRHYMET) Regional Centre work in concert with ECOWAS. The Basin Authorities have crucial roles in the mangement of transboundary waters. National governments and national agricultural research and extension systems (NARES) in each of the 15 ECOWAS states are key players. The NARES work in partnership with the CGIAR Centres, which are better capacitated to lead strategic research on climate smart agriculture. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Environnement et Développement du Tiers-Monde (ENDA-TM), World Vision and CARE are well placed to do important work at the grassroots level. IDRC, the UK Department for International Development (DFID), UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Germany’s Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) all play important roles as determined by their mandates, missions and strengths.
Good governance, sound macroeconomic policies and access to credit and markets are required for successful adaptation to climate change, as well as training and provision of extension services to farmers. Learning from success stories and on-farm testing of best bets to fit well into the biophysical and socioeconomic circumstances of smallholders is required. Climate-smart agriculture involving complementary adaptation and mitigation practices should be promoted. Stakeholders becoming familiar with participatory approaches in research and development and mainstreaming of adaptation to climate change into new projects on food security are opportunities worth embracing. Research findings should be made use of in developing agricultural sector policies through better use of informal dialogue; early involvement of policymakers, journalists and farmer associations; and joint stakeholder monitoring and evaluation of adaptation projects. Policies on climate adaptation should be gender sensitive and flexible to allow for continuing adjustments and improvements with a focus on strengthening adaptive capacity of farmers. There is need for substantial funding by governments and donors of adaptation projects in the agricultural sector and institutions dealing with adaptation to climate change.
admin | 2014-07-30 | 3.2 MB | details
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has produced the most comprehensive assessment of climate change ever. The Fifth Assessment Report (http://www.ipcc.ch ), which the IPCC is releasing in four parts between September 2013 and November 2014, is the work of 830 expert authors, from 85 countries. Its first three volumes already stretch to 5,000+ pages.
The IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report: What’s in it for Africa? distils the richest material on climate impacts and trends in Africa, and African experiences in adaptation and mitigation, from the thousands of pages of the Fifth Assessment Report. The expert research team has worked under the guidance of IPCC Coordinating Lead Authors and Reviewers to ensure fidelity to the original material.
The IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report: What’s in it for Africa? aims to make the IPCC’s important material more accessible and usable to African audiences. This guide responds to wide demand for region-specific information.
The guide is part of a suite of materials to promote the key findings of the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report. Forthcoming companion volumes will provide a digest of IPCC findings for: South Asia; Latin America; and Small Island Developing States. Please visit www.cdkn.org/ar5-toolkit from 16 July 2014, to access a range of resources, including free-to-use images and infographics.
admin | 2014-05-13 | 225.3 KB | details
Identification des projets pilotes par les communautés de base dans les 4 sites du projet GIZC
En vue de permettre leur implication dans la mise en oeuvre de la GIZC, les communautés locales ont été invitées a proposer des projets. Après analyse et discussions, les propositions suivantes ont été retenues :
•Zone de Saint Louis : le Gandiole – le Gandon - La langue de Barbarie. Un grand projet de gestion des déchets y sera mis en oeuvre. Ce projet consistera à transformer les GIE CETOM, (Collecte Evacuation et Traitement des Ordures Ménagères) en charge de la gestion communautaire des ordures, en entreprises sociales et répliquer l’expérience dans les autres zones.
•Zone de Malika : un projet de reboisement sera effectué dans une ancienne carrière de sable.
•Zone de Joal : l’accent sera mis sur des activités de communication et de sensibilisation. Pour mener à bien ces activités, des contacts ont été pris avec des organisations actives à Joal notamment l’ONG APTE, et l’Association JVE (Jeunes Volontaires pour l’Environnement) afin de mieux impliquer les jeunes.
• Zone de Mbour: Commune de Mbour et collectivités rurales du département : Warang - Nianing - Mballing- Pointe Saréne : un (1) projet sur la gestion des déchets avait été proposé par le comité local. Pour lancer les premières activités, un focus sera mis sur les plages avec la mise en place de Comités de Salubrité des Plages et le lancement d’une communauté de pratique.
admin | 2014-04-08 | 367.1 KB | details
Pour parler de Communauté de pratique (CP), il y a essentiellement trois (03) éléments
incontournables que sont : le domaine, la communauté, la pratique. Selon le contexte, les CP
peuvent également prendre des formes différentes qui allient une taille grande, moyenne ou
petite, ainsi qu’un modèle organisationnel spécifique. Certaines CP ont un caractère local
quand d’autres rayonnent sur des espaces géographiques plutôt larges. Une CP peut être de
type formel ou simplement informel, mais cela comporte également des enjeux en termes
d’appui notamment financier dont elles peuvent bénéficier pour mener leurs activités.
admin | 2014-04-08 | 269.3 KB | details
Gestion Intégrée des Zones Côtières - PROCESSUS DE MISE EN PLACE D’UNE COMMUNAUTE DE PRATIQUES A MBOUR - LES ETAPES DU PROCESSUS
admin | 2014-02-27 | 5.2 MB | details
21 February 2014: The UN Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation (UN-REDD) has released a case study on using spatial analysis to support REDD+ safeguard and multiple benefit decision making in Tanzania.
admin | 2013-12-19 | 2.5 MB | details
This booklet showcases 16 initiatives that are having a widespread impact on food security, adaptation to climate change and climate change mitigation, covering large areas of land and improving the lives of millions of people.
With examples from both the developed and developing world, the initiatives include innovative agricultural interventions (Chapter 1 in this booklet), initiatives that address climate-related risks (Chapter 2) and policies and institutions that
underpin adaptation to and mitigation of climate change (Chapter 3). In some cases, particularly in the policy domain, the support for climate-smart agriculture is a side-benefit rather than the core objective of the initiative; in others, it is the main focus. But ultimately, all the cases meet the threepart goal of improving resilience to climate change, enhancing food security and livelihoods, and reducing agriculture’s climate footprint.
Rapport Final - ENDA_"Agriculture, Changement Climatique et Responsabilité Sociétale des Organisations"
admin | 2013-09-01 | 4.2 MB | details
"Initiative Savoirs, Culture et Développement Durable"
Première édition intitulée "Agriculture, Changement Climatique et Responsabilité Sociétale des Organisations"
Smallholder Farmers’ Perception of the Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on Rain-fed Agricultural Practices in Semi-arid and Sub-humid Regions of Kenya
admin | 2013-07-02 | 619.0 KB | details
Despite the widespread scientific debate concerning the impacts of climate change and variability (CC & V), not much is known about rural farming households’ perceptions of these impacts on their agricultural practices. This is especially so in Africa. In order to address this pressing research need, this study documents those perceptions using data from household interviews at four sites in Kenya selected using a temperature analogue approach. A pair of sites was selected with a semi-arid climate (Katumani and Kambi ya Mawe) and a second pair selected with a sub-humid climate (Kabete and Muguga). Within each pair, sites have similar rainfall totals and patterns but have mean annual temperature differences of between 1.5 and 300C. Thus the warm sites (Kambi ya Mawe and Kabete) are expected to be representative of the cool sites after global warming. Eight agricultural practices that influence productivity were selected for analysis. Significantly, more farmers at the drier sites reported having perceived more changes in the past 30 years than in the past 10 years in nearly all the selected agricultural practices.
admin | 2013-06-04 | 153.8 MB | details
As the world’s population grows from around 7 billion in 2012 to around 9 billion by 2050, the population in countries south of the Sahara is likely to surge from around 850 million today to around 1.7 billion in 2050. West Africa alone will make up more than 35 percent of Africa south of the Sahara and almost 7 percent of the world’s population in 2050. Most of the people making up this population increase are expected to live in urban areas and to have higher incomes than currently is the case, which will result in increased demand for food. In the best of circumstances, the challenge of meeting this demand in a sustainable manner will be enormous. When one takes into account the effects of climate change (higher temperatures, shifting seasons, more frequent and extreme weather events, flooding, and drought) on food production, that challenge grows even more daunting. The global food price spikes of 2008, 2010, and 2012 are harbingers of a troubled future for global food security.
IMPROVING AFRICAN AGRICULTURE SPENDING: BUDGET ANALYSIS OF BURUNDI, GHANA, ZAMBIA, KENYA AND SIERRA LEONE
admin | 2013-05-21 | 4.1 MB | details
The five country reports in this document analyse government agriculture spending, assessing how well it is focused on the needs of smallholder farmers, especially women, who constitute most farmers in these countries. The reports mainly concentrate on assessing the level and quality of government spending, the extent to which it focuses on providing key services to farmers such as access to inputs, extension and agricultural research and the extent to which sustainable agriculture is being promoted. The reports were commissioned by and written for either ActionAid or Christian Aid in 2011 and 2012. They are based on secondary research, interviews with government officials, donors, academics and NGOs, and fieldwork among individual farmers and farmers groups in select areas of each country.
The reports have several common themes. Typically, the level of agriculture spending is too low, there is insufficient focus on promoting quality key services to small farmers and there is insufficient attention to sustainable agricultural methods. But Africa does not need a ‘Green Revolution’ so much as a small farmer revolution. There is a need to markedly improve, and in some countries radically transform, agriculture spending and policy to really benefit small farmers and to focus policies on those who do most of the farming – women. Read more http://cc.cc/GHKX
Changement Climatique, Agriculture et Responsabilité Sociétale des Organisations: Note conceptuelle et Agenda
admin | 2013-05-11 | 882.5 KB | details
Note conceptuelle et Agenda
admin | 2013-05-11 | 820.0 KB | details
Event concept note and agenda
Understanding past and future impacts of climate change in Agriculture: Implications for Adaptation Planning
admin | 2013-05-10 | 13.2 MB | details
Key research findings from the "Adapting to Climate Change in China (ACCC)" project
admin | 2013-05-09 | 437.8 KB | details
This paper discusses micro-level practices for adapting to climate change that are available to small-scale farmers in Africa. The analysis is based on a review of 17 studies about practices that boost small-scale farmers’ resilience or reduce their vulnerability to observed or expected changes in climate; it includes data from more than 16 countries in Africa, the Americas, Europe, and Asia. The review shows that African smallholders are already using a wide variety of creative practices to deal with climate risks; these can be further adjusted to the challenge of climate change by planned adaptation programs. We found 104 different practices relevant to climate change adaptation and organized them in five categories: farm management and technology; farm financial management; diversification on and beyond the farm; government interventions in infrastructure, health, and risk reduction; and knowledge management, networks, and governance. We conclude that adaptation policies should complement farmers’ autonomous response to climate change through the development of new drought-resistant varieties and improved weather forecasts, the provision of financial services, improvement of rural transportation infrastructure, investments in public healthcare and public welfare programs, and policies that improve local governance and coordinate donor activities.
admin | 2013-05-06 | 751.7 KB | details
The high and volatile food prices that triggered a renewed interest in food security since the 2008-09 crisis are expected to continue because of factors that include the impacts of climate change. Current policy prescriptions focus on food production; however, a broader approach based on food systems is more appropriate as it encompasses all aspects of food production, storage, distribution and consumption, all of which will be affected by climate change and especially by the growing frequency and severity of extreme weather events. As most low-income groups in both rural and urban areas are net buyers of food, access and affordability are central concerns. There is also a need for more attention to urban food security. While more than half of the world's population now live in urban centres and on average benefit from higher incomes and better living conditions than rural residents, there is also considerable inequality between wealthier groups and the residents of low-income and informal settlements. Low and irregular incomes are the root cause of urban food insecurity, but inadequate housing and basic infrastructure and limited access to services contribute to levels of malnutrition and food insecurity that are often as high if not higher than in rural areas. They also increase exposure and sensitivity to the impacts of climate change and affect the ability to build resilience. Effective policies need to address urban food insecurity in both its income and non-income dimensions, and their impact on gendered disadvantage.
New publication which analyses government agriculture spending in Ghana, Zambia, Kenya, Sierra Leone and Burundi
admin | 2013-04-30 | 4.1 MB | details
The five country reports are based on fieldwork, secondary research and interviews in these countries during 2011 and 2012 and were originally commissioned by ActionAid or Christian Aid. They provide a detailed analysis of agriculture budgets and assess how well government spending is focused on smallholder farmers, especially women, the level and quality of government spending, the extent to which governments are prioritising key services to farmers - access to extension, inputs, finance and agricultural research - and the extent to which sustainable agriculture is being promoted. By providing key information and analysis, it is hoped that these reports will be useful for advocacy on increasing the level and quality of agriculture spending, improving the provision of key services, stepping up support for sustainable agriculture and focusing spending and policy on those those who do most of the farming – women.
admin | 2013-04-17 | 750.8 KB | details
Annexes Meet & Greet Thies et Bambey - Photos des visites.
admin | 2013-04-17 | 585.6 KB | details
Poursuivant sa mission de faciliter la circulation des
connaissances d'adaptation au changement climatique pour les
moyens d'existence durables entre les chercheurs, les décideurs politiques, les organisations de la société civile et les communautés qui sont vulnérables à la variabilité et aux changements climatiques à travers le continent, le Réseau AfricaAdapt/ Sénégal a organisé des visites de terrain ( Meet and Greet ) des 18 et 21 mars dans les localités de YEBA, de THICKY et de KOURTY respectivement dans les régions de Thiès et de Diourbel.
L’AGRICULTURE BIOLOGIQUE AU SÉNÉGAL ÉTAT DES LIEUX ET POTENTIEL D’INVESTISSEMENT DANS LE CADRE D’UNE TRANSITION VERTE
admin | 2013-04-02 | 2.2 MB | details
Au Sénégal, l’agriculture, qui occupe plus de 60% de la population active1, fait face à de nombreuses diffi cultés : dégradation des terres, baisse des rendements, pauvreté des paysans. Les régions où l’agriculture constitue la principale source de revenus ont les taux de pauvreté les plus élevés. Ces diffi cultés sont liées en partie à un mode d’exploitation peu adapté au contexte local qui tend à appauvrir les hommes et les resources naturelles. Les productions et les revenues agricoles sont de plus en plus aléatoires et ne couvrent plus les besoins des familles. En 2010, le Sénégal a importé plus d’un million de tones de céréales2. Pour la campagne 2010-2011, en dehors du riz qui a enregistré une amelioration de sa production et du mil dont la production s’est stabilisée, toutes les speculations vivrières ont vu leur production diminuer.
admin | 2013-02-28 | 856.1 KB | details
Key findings and policy recommendations from the AfricaAdapt network
Climate change is reframing Africa’s food security debate. Farmers have long adapted to recurrent droughts through traditional practices such as intercropping. But now they face increasingly unpredictable weather patterns, degraded soils, declining yields … and ever more mouths to feed. Can transgenic biotechnology partially mitigate climate change and help Africa’s farmers adapt to its impacts?
The AfricaAdapt network asked its members to discuss whether African countries should embrace genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as a means to cope with climate change. This polarizing issue drew responses from agricultural researchers, academia, extension organizations and grassroots community groups. The diverse perspectives – economic, ecological, political and social – made for a lively debate. This brief summarizes their insights and recommendations.
Second newsletter out: Insights of some of the main research activities carried out so far during 2012 by CALESA’s partnership
fmannke | 2013-02-19 | 1.1 MB | details
The second CALESA newsletter has been published and is available!
fmannke | 2013-02-18 | 396.2 KB | details
The first CALESA newsletter has just been published and is available!
fmannke | 2013-02-18 | 1.8 MB | details
Presentation to introduce the African context related with climate change, together with the main goals of CALESA project.
fmannke | 2013-02-18 | 545.7 KB | details
Developing promising strategies using analogue locations in
Eastern and Southern Africa (CALESA project).