Knowledge Sharing for Climate Change Adaption

Project Overview

  •  Science summary: The drought in Kenya, 2016–2017

    Science summary: The drought in Kenya, 2016–2017

    Created by: annahickman1 | 2017-06-16 13:28

    Associated Organization: Raising Risk Awareness initiative

    Summary:

    Kenya is currently suffering from a drought, which has triggered a national emergency as of April 2017. The drought threatens health and local food security. Scientists with Climate Central, the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) and the University of Oxford – as part of the World Weather Attribution (WWA) partnership, which also includes Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre and the University of Melbourne – conducted a real-time attribution analysis to see whether and to what extent human-induced climate change has played a role in this drought in Kenya.

    The rapid/real-time analysis conducted by WWA in Kenya is part of the Raising Risk Awareness project, a pilot project delivered in collaboration with the Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) using state-of-the-art science to increase understanding of the role of climate change in extreme weather events and prepare for future ones.

    The results indicate that the temperatures involved in this drought are hotter than they would have been without the influence of climate change. The results do not detect a strong climate change signal in the rainfall trend, but the team cannot exclude small changes in the risk of poor rains linked to climate change.

    Read the science summary here: The drought in Kenya, 2016–2017

    Kenya is highly vulnerable to drought. Only 20% of the country receives high and regular rainfall. The remaining 80% is characterised as arid and semi-arid lands where rainfall is highly variable and drought is a regular feature of the climate. The arid and semi-arid lands house more than half of all livestock in Kenya and more than a quarter (30%) of the population; these are among the most vulnerable populations to rainfall variability and drought.


  • WORKING PAPER: Making governance work for water-energy-food nexus approaches

    WORKING PAPER: Making governance work for water-energy-food nexus approaches

    Created by: annahickman1 | 2017-06-16 13:25

    Associated Organization: Climate and Development Knowledge Network

    Summary:

     

    WORKING PAPER: Making governance work for water-energy-food nexus approaches

     

    A new CDKN working paper by Andrew Scott of ODI explores the effectiveness of governing for the “water-energy-food nexus” of issues. The author looks at approaches that understand the links between sectors, recognise these in decision-making and promote integrated policy-making.

     

    The concept of the water–energy–food (WEF) nexus has become widely used to help understand interdependencies among the three systems, and how they can be managed sustainably to meet growing demand. The water–energy–food nexus has especially been advocated to address conflicts among the sectors. However, governance in the water–energy–food nexus has not received much attention in the literature, particularly the institutions and politics governing the water–energy–food sectors.

     

    This paper synthesises findings from CDKN-supported action research in this area. The paper draws from findings in Indonesia, Kenya and the Amazon Basin to show that the effectiveness of the horizontal (cross-sectoral) and vertical (between levels of government) coordination that is essential for a nexus approach is determined by institutional relationships, which can be influenced by political economy factors. The capacity of governing organisations to understand nexus links and to collaborate with each other is also critical.

     

    The paper suggests that aiming for the ideal of comprehensiveness and integration in a nexus approach may be costly and impractical. Nevertheless, horizontal and vertical coordination are essential. Local-level decision-making will determine how trade-offs and synergies in the water–energy–food nexus are implemented. The capacities of local government organisations and decision-makers need to be strengthened to enhance their capacity to adopt nexus approaches and coordinate vertically.

     

    Download the working paper here: Making governance work for water-energy-food nexus approaches

     


  • African Union and FAO Expand Great Green Wall Partnership

    African Union and FAO Expand Great Green Wall Partnership

    Created by: admin | 2016-02-17 07:55

    Associated Organization: AU, FAO

    Summary:

    The African Union Commission (AUC) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) have launched a €41 million ‘Action Against Desertification' project that aims to support six African countries - Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, the Gambia, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal - with the large-scale restoration of production landscapes affected by desertification and land degradation. The project is funded under the 10th European Development Fund (EDF) programme of support to the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States.
    read more:  http://africasd.iisd.org/news/african-union-and-fao-expand-great-green-wall-partnership/


  • QUANTIFYING LOCAL INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES OF AGRARIAN COMMUNITIES/SOCIETIES TO COMPLEMENT CLIMATOLOGICAL/ METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION.

    QUANTIFYING LOCAL INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES OF AGRARIAN COMMUNITIES/SOCIETIES TO COMPLEMENT CLIMATOLOGICAL/ METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION.

    Created by: ericngang | 2015-09-20 21:22

    Associated Organization: Action Group on Governance and Environmental Management (AGGEM)

    Summary:

     Introduction

    Climate change is a defining issue of our era, with its impacts reaching global, regional and local scales. The current magnitude and variability have critical implications for agriculture, fisheries, forestry, life histories, community composition, and ecosystem function across most developing countries. Households and families in countries of the African continent are among the most vulnerable to climate variability and extremes, given that only 5% of their cultivated land is irrigated and food production is dependent mainly on rain-fed agriculture.  New agricultural technologies and scientific practices have been introduced to improve the capacity to adapt to climate change. Policies have emerged at different levels (local, national and sub-regional) that encourage the adoption of such practices, and new tools and financing mechanisms are being introduced to shield farmers from the impacts of climatic risks. However some of these actions have sidelined Local Indigenous Knowledge and Practices (LIKPs) that are currently recognised as making significant contribution to community adaptation and changing circumstances at household and community level. These traditional practices and strategies that constitute traditional science that have been linked to the observations of changes in climate and long-term extreme weather conditions, transferred from one decade to another and from generation to generation through a process of mutual and collective learning passed on orally and practically, have been grossly neglected policy research and discourse.

     


  • L³EAP - LifeLong Learning for Energy security, access and efficiency in African and Pacific Small Island Developing States

    L³EAP - LifeLong Learning for Energy security, access and efficiency in African and Pacific Small Island Developing States

    Created by: fmannke | 2015-07-28 10:06

    Associated Organization: EU, EDULINK, ACP

    Summary:

    The purpose of the L³EAP project is to increase the capacity of HEIs in African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) SIDS to deliver high-quality Lifelong Learning courses on the topics of energy access, security and efficiency.

    • - By its focus on energy security, access and efficiency, L³EAP addresses a topic that is most relevant for the local labour market and socio-economic development in general.
    • - By its focus on SIDs, L³EAP supports countries where energy access, energy security and efficiency play a central role for achieving socio-economic development goals, because of the high dependence of and costs for importing fossil fuels, as well as the low electrification rate (e.g. Papua New Guinea 10%). 
    • - By its focus on Lifelong learning (LLL), L³EAP offers tailor-made solutions, for increasing on a short-term and flexible basis, the local availability of skilled human resources that is required by the local labour market for meeting the current challenges in the dynamic energy sector.

    Thereby, L³EAP contributes to the global objective ofsupporting higher education of quality, that is efficient and relevant to the needs of the labour market and consistent with the ACP regions’ and member countries’ socio-economic development priorities.

    L³EAP also aims to strengthen the academic capacity of the partner HEI to modernise their teaching offers by a concrete development of development of LLL courses, the exchange of experiences among the partners on LLL, and learning-by-doing when developing and implementing a hands-on  transnational pilot teaching module.

    Moreover, a planned widely disseminated transnational recommendation report will enable other HEI to benefit from the lessons learned during L³EAP. Thereby, L³EAP meets the specific objective of EDULINK II to strengthen the capacity of ACP HEIs at academic level.

    The development of LLL courses also entails a detailed concept for LLL course, management marketing, finance, which increases the capacity of management and administration to implement and manage the new course programme.

    In addition, the capacity building programme also covers skills for the management of research projects. Thereby, L³EAP meets the specific objective of EDULINK II to strengthen the capacity of ACP HEIs at management/administration level.

    With its focus on energy security, access and efficiency, LEAP addresses the EDULINK’s thematic fields of “Energy access and efficiency” in particular:

    • Innovative solutions to improve access to energy
    • Use of modern technologies
    •  Renewable energies; Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions
    • Policies and strategies to cleaner, stable electricity services (e.g. to households and businesses)

     


  • India’s Global Resource Footprint in Food, Energy and Water

    India’s Global Resource Footprint in Food, Energy and Water

    Created by: shilpi_jain | 2015-07-21 10:06

    Associated Organization: Knowledge Partnership Programme (IPE Global Pvt. Ltd)

    Summary:

    Using a nexus approach, this study synthesises current knowledge on India’s food, water and energy (FEW) footprint, and assesses the possible future global impact of India’s demand for these resources. It offers resource efficiency measures adopted in India which may find resonance with Low Income Countries. You can download the project details from http://www.ipekpp.com/admin/upload_files/Report_1_14_Indiarsquos_2437139091.pdf


  • Green Brick Technology Transfer to Malawi: Market Assessment Report for setting up Vertical Shaft Brick Kilns (VSBKs)

    Green Brick Technology Transfer to Malawi: Market Assessment Report for setting up Vertical Shaft Brick Kilns (VSBKs)

    Created by: shilpi_jain | 2015-07-13 06:04

    Associated Organization: Knowledge Partnership Programme (IPE Global Pvt. Ltd)

    Summary:

    In Malawi, increasing demand for housing has put tremendous pressure on the building material sector, resulting in deforestation, rising costs and poor quality construction. Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln technology offers a resource efficient and financially viable option for the production of quality bricks.


  • Rural Safe Water Supply Project in Kayunga - Uganda (E.A)

    Rural Safe Water Supply Project in Kayunga - Uganda (E.A)

    Created by: buvad | 2015-06-29 19:08

    Associated Organization: Butakoola Village Association for Development

    Summary:

    We are the  Butakoola Village Association for Development( BUVAD), an indigenous registered non profit organization implementing a local project of the Rural Communities Safe Water Supply, which we are  implementing in Kayunga District of Uganda ( East Africa ). Our registration number is S.5914/8930. We have been operating in a rural area of Kayunga Sub county in Kayunga District since 2000 and are starting to roll out to more Sub counties of Kayunga District, following request and legal support by the District Water and Sanitation Coordination Committee of Kayunga District. Our offices are located at Bukolooto Trading Centre in Kayunga District.

     

    Our Vision is to realize an improved standard of living for the people of  Kayunga District and Uganda as a whole.

     

    Our Mission is to promote human values for Ugandans such that they may realize their full potential towards development for a sustainable living.

     

     In June 2009 BUVAD staff carried out a baseline survey through which a lot of challenges were unearthed. Amongst them, was that there is need for 8 more of these wells in Bukolooto parish and 9more per each in 7 parishes identified in Kayunga, Kangulumira and Busaana Sub Counties, making a total of 72 wells needed.

     

    You can download a copy of this baseline survey report for you to read more about the BUVAD challenges at our website; http://www.projectbuvad.org/    

     

    We have so far managed to secure funding from StartFund Netherlands for 4 of these water wells, and Minga Foundation USA for 5 more water wells, which we have so far successfully implemented.

     

    The challenge now remains with securing funding for more similar water wells set up at the remaining 63 identified sites.

     

    Project Goal:


    This project is targeted towards improved health care in Kayunga region through easy, accessible and equitably distributed clean – safe water in remote rural communities.

     


  • Malawi, Partners Assess Flooding Loss and Damage, Recovery Costs

    Malawi, Partners Assess Flooding Loss and Damage, Recovery Costs

    Created by: admin | 2015-06-24 09:23

    Associated Organization: GFDRR, UN, EU

    Summary:

    With technical support from the World Bank Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), the UN and the EU, the Government of Malawi carried out a Post-Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA) in the aftermath of the 2015 floods in Malawi, launching the findings on 18 June 2015, in Malawi. The assessment aimed to quantify the loss and damage from the floods, and estimate recovery and reconstruction costs. The assessment shows total loss and damage of US$335 million, while total recovery and reconstruction costs are approximately US$494 million.
    read more:  http://africasd.iisd.org/news/malawi-partners-assess-flooding-loss-and-damage-recovery-costs/


  • test

    Created by: richarit | 2015-06-12 17:02

    Associated Organization: test

    Summary:


  • Sustainable livelihood project , creating jobs and clean cooking fuel pellets

    Sustainable livelihood project , creating jobs and clean cooking fuel pellets

    Created by: nibhoria | 2015-02-17 10:09

    Associated Organization: Nishant Bioenergy P Ltd

    Summary:

    I take this opportunity to introduce my company  Nishant Bioenergy P ltd (NB), India.  NB is pioneer company conceiving , designing, manufacturing Biomass Fuel Pellet Plant, Pellet Fueled Cook Stoves for bigger kitchens. We sell these technologies to local franchisee ( producing pellets and supplying to stove user in their territory).

    We are in this domain since 1999 and won ASHDEN Award in 2005 and PCRA AWARD in 2000. Presently we are establishing GSCDM project and ERPA signed with myclimate, Switzerland.

    (http://www.myclimate.org/fileadmin/myc/klimaschutzprojekte/indien-7160/klimaschutzprojekt-indien-7160-project-story.pdf ). We have patent pending stove designs ( 2015 launch). We have Two designs. 


  • FAO, Malawi to Protect Farmers from Severe Flooding

    FAO, Malawi to Protect Farmers from Severe Flooding

    Created by: admin | 2015-02-05 19:18

    Associated Organization: FAO

    Summary:

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) is working with the Government of Malawi on a US$16 million plan to protect farmers from severe flooding, which has destroyed fields and homes, washed away animals and crops, and is threatening food security in the affected areas, including with disease outbreaks that could affect surviving livestock. Read more: http://climate-l.iisd.org/news/fao-malawi-to-protect-farmers-from-severe-flooding/


  • UNCCD Land Degradation Neutrality Project

    UNCCD Land Degradation Neutrality Project

    Created by: admin | 2015-01-29 23:28

    Associated Organization: UNCCD

    Summary: The inception meeting of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) Project, attended by 15 country delegates, took place from 14-16 January 2014 in Bonn, Germany. The project's objective is to contribute towards implementing the outcomes of the 2012 UN Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD or Rio+20), by providing the UNCCD with empirical evidence on the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the LDN goal.


  • IFAD Project Combats Land Degradation in Ethiopia

    IFAD Project Combats Land Degradation in Ethiopia

    Created by: admin | 2015-01-21 11:26

    Associated Organization: IFAD

    Summary:

    An International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)-supported project in Ethiopia is making progress in addressing land degradation. The 'Community-based Natural Resource Management Project,' located in the watershed of Lake Tana in the northwest of the country focuses on combating land degradation and promoting sustainable land management (SLM) to increase agricultural productivity, household food security, incomes and climate change resilience.
    Read more:  http://africasd.iisd.org/news/ifad-project-combats-land-degradation-in-ethiopia/


  • Poisoned chickens crack clean energy glass ceiling in Kenya

    Poisoned chickens crack clean energy glass ceiling in Kenya

    Created by: admin | 2015-01-20 14:17

    Associated Organization: Thomson Reuters Foundation

    Summary:

    Waithera, a poultry farmer, began looking for ways to keep her birds alive through the cold nights. Charcoal fires, her first choice, resulted in too many birds dying of carbon monoxide poisoning in their closed coop.

    So, on the advice of other farmers, she turned to briquettes made of compressed waste materials from sugar and molasses production. The long-burning briquettes worked - even relieving her of the middle-of-the-night drudgery of trudging to the chicken house to stock up the charcoal fire.


  • Forests and Climate Change in the Congo (FCCC)

    Forests and Climate Change in the Congo (FCCC)

    Created by: admin | 2015-01-15 12:38

    Associated Organization: CIFOR

    Summary:

    The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) has released an overview of the Forests and Climate Change in the Congo (FCCC) project, which aims to support the efforts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in capacity building and applied research to reduce deforestation and forest degradation, and thereby mitigate climate change.


  • UN, Development Bank Leaders Launch Horn of Africa Initiative on High-Level Visit

    UN, Development Bank Leaders Launch Horn of Africa Initiative on High-Level Visit

    Created by: admin | 2014-10-28 19:32

    Associated Organization: IISD

    Summary:

    UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon announced a US$8 billion initiative to reduce poverty, boost economic growth and promote business activity across the Horn of Africa, during a visit to the region with global and regional leaders. The World Bank, African Development Bank (AfDB), Islamic Development Bank (IsDBG) and EU also made pledges to the Horn of Africa Initiative, which aims to enhance the regions's economic development and its food and water security, among other aims.

    The leaders' visit began in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on 27 October 2014. The Horn of Africa also includes Djibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda. According to the UN, while the region has untapped natural resources and some of the world's fastest growing economies, many countries are experiencing poverty, unemployment and gender inequality and are vulnerable to corruption, drug trafficking, piracy and violence.

    The Horn is also predicted to undergo “dramatic and lasting change” when oil production begins in Kenya, Uganda and possibly Ethiopia and Somalia, according to a Working Paper by the World Bank. The paper highlights “encouraging signs” of strong political will to solve development and security issues through cooperation and enhanced regional economic interdependence.


  • Empowerment and Skills Development in Beekeeping for Vulnerable People in Rural  Mukono Uganda

    Empowerment and Skills Development in Beekeeping for Vulnerable People in Rural Mukono Uganda

    Created by: EACO | 2014-08-30 14:25

    Associated Organization: Empower And Care Organization

    Summary:

      Project Summary:

    Empowerment  And Skills Development In Beekeeping For Vulnerable People of Rural Mukono - to empower rural vulnerable people with knowledge and skills in beekeeping, as a way of addressing rural poverty and general health issues and to provide them with a set of basic tools and support  to help them get off the poverty trap.

     

    The fundamental objectives of this project are threefold:

     

    •       To introduce beekeeping as a means of providing personal income for vulnerable people;

    •       The alleviation of poverty in rural areas of Uganda;

    •       The provision of an ongoing source of local income for EACO.

      Needs assessments based on socio-economic backgrounds (situation analysis) EACO interventions focus on poverty reduction and address the effects of HIV/AIDS. A majority of vulnerable women, particularly widows and those living with HIV/AIDS, as well as vulnerable children, youth, and the elderly in this area, located at Bugoye in Ntenjeru sub county, have limited to no opportunities to participate in decisions concerning their wellbeing because of their vulnerability (usually poverty and gender) or their age. As a result of the lack of sources of income, they are unable to meet their most basic needs.A lack of professional skills is a leading obstacle to development in rural Mukono Communities and it hinders the population from actively improving their lives sustainably, especially at community levels. The overall agricultural productivity development rate in Mukono District is still very low and varies depending on the Sub-county geographical locations. The average poverty rate in the District is at 40% whereby the discrepancy of poverty rates between the two axes, abject poverty is commonly experienced in the rural areas and relative poverty in urban areas and thus making poverty a social problem which derives its origin or is directly linked to low household productive skills and lack of resources for production.

    •      Target population and number of beneficiaries To introduce 200 people, mostly women, to beekeeping and achieve a 40% adoption rate in the first year of operation.

    •      Requested items (outputs), together with expected outcomes and other impacts through the project

    1.   A well understood whole industry approach looking at all areas of the industry;

    2.   A noteworthy increase in honey production and honey beehive numbers within two to three years;

    3.   Individuals/families/communities generating income from the keeping/farming of honey bees;

    4.   An increase in the community baseline knowledge and skills in apiculture; and

    5.   On-going industry support and development.

     

    This Project is designed to provide education, leadership training, and sustainable income generating opportunities specifically for vulnerable people and their families who are affected by poverty and HIV/AIDS in rural Mukono County by ensuring self-sustainability of EACO beneficiaries and guaranteeing that they are in a position to meet their basic needs (i.e. food, water, shelter) and support their school dues like school fees and medical treatment. Thus, by definition, the successful project outcome is that participants will be able to carry on the activities without further assistance.

     

     


  • Education for Sustainable Development

    Created by: oroiyorobert@yahoo.co.uk | 2014-08-28 23:49

    Associated Organization: World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)

    Summary:

    The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) has been in operation since 1961. This represents 50 years of action in conservation. In the last 50 years, WWF has evolved from an organisation that started in the North to a global organisation with an evolved philosophy and organizational mandate. WWF today operates in over 100 countries. WWF is driven by a conviction to build a future in which people live in harmony with nature.

    WWF has been engaged in conservation activities in East Africa on various fronts. The Lake Victoria Catchment Environmental Education Programme (LVCEEP) is one of those conservation efforts that were initiated in 2004. This programme was initiated at the backdrop of increased environmental challenges facing the lake in the last decade. These environmental challenges include among others: increased erosion and siltation of the lake, biodiversity loss, invasive species invasion (water hyacinth), and pollution leading to frequency of algae blooms, habitat change and destruction. Some studies have indicated that fish species diversity and richness in the lake has declined by up to 80% in respect to indigenous fish species while forest cover around the lake has drastically declined by over 70 percent. Municipal wastes and various industrial and mining operations within and around the lake also continue to put pressure on the lake and lake resources. Such challenges inspired the inception of the LVCEEP.

     

    The LVCEEP is coordinated by the WWF-Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Programme Office (ESARPO). This programme seeks to empower the catchment communities, schools and regional partners with knowledge, motivation and abilities for sustainable use and management of natural resources. The LVCEEP is implemented through a range of environmental education activities in model schools and communities bordering the lake. LVCEEP not only seeks to promote the conservation of Lake Victoria catchment but also bring about improved and sustainable livelihoods in the communities within the Lake Victoria catchment.  These actions are meant to fulfill the LVCEEP goal that seeks to secure the ecological integrity and sustainability of the Lake Victoria catchment for the benefit of its inhabitants and biological diversity. 


  • The IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report: What’s in it for Africa?

    The IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report: What’s in it for Africa?

    Created by: admin | 2014-07-30 14:29

    Associated Organization: CDKN

    Summary:

    The intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has produced the most comprehensive assessment of climate change ever. The Fifth Assessment Report (htpp://www.ipcc.ch), which IPCC is releasing in four parts between September 2013 and November 2014, is the work of 830 expert authors, from 85 countries. Its first three vomumes already strech to 5,000+ pages.

    The assessment reviews the scientific evidence on the trends and causes of climate change, the risks to human and natural systems, and options for adaptation and mitigation. The IPCC aims to be – in its own words – “policy relevant but not policy prescriptive”. Its findings further our understanding of humankind’s interaction with our environment: how we are affecting the global climate and what we can do about it.

     

    Now the Climate and Development Knowledge Network (www.cdkn.org) and Overseas Development Institute (www.odi.org.uk) have released a succinct guide to the assessment for decision-makers in Africa.

     

    The IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report: What’s in it for Africa?  distils the richest material on climate impacts and trends in Africa, and African experiences in adaptation and mitigation, from the thousands of pages of the Fifth Assessment Report. The expert research team has worked under the guidance of IPCC Coordinating Lead Authors and Reviewers to ensure fidelity to the original material.

     

    The IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report: What’s in it for Africa? aims to make the IPCC’s important material more accessible and usable to African audiences. This guide responds to wide demand for region-specific information.

     

    The guide is part of a suite of materials to promote the key findings of the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report. Forthcoming companion volumes will provide a digest of IPCC findings for: South Asia; Latin America; and Small Island Developing States. Please visit www.cdkn.org/ar5-toolkit from 16 July 2014, to access a range of resources, including free-to-use images and infographics.

     

    The IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report offers the following key messages for Africa:

    ·        Africa’s climate is already changing and the impacts are already being felt

    ·        Further climate change is inevitable in the coming decades

    ·        Climate change poses challenges to growth and development in Africa

    ·        Adaptation will bring immediate benefits and reduce the impacts of climate change in Africa

    ·        Adaptation is fundamentally about risk management

    ·        Adaptation experience in Africa is growing

    ·        Some low-carbon development options may be less costly in the long run and could offer new economic opportunities for Africa

    ·        Africa stands to benefit from integrated climate adaptation, mitigation and development approaches

    ·        International cooperation is vital to avert dangerous climate change and African governments can promote ambitious global action.